National reports

This report analyses some challenges for achieving the 2030 Agenda at the national, state and municipal levels where a constant is the lack of a human rights and sustainability approach to planning, legislation and policies on the issues addressed by the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). There is an urgent need to review reform and redirect some of these frameworks, if there is a serious intention to generate enabling conditions for implementing the 2030 Agenda and virtuous cycles between the SDGs and their goals. It also includes general recommendations of civil society to the Mexican Government about the importance of citizen participation in the design of the national implementation plan, the instruments and mechanisms for measuring, monitoring and review and the facilitation of a wide dissemination and social appropriation of the 2030 Agenda.
The 17 Goals and 169 targets of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, which encompass economic, social and environmental spheres, are integrated and indivisible. With reference to this Agenda, Peru shows signs of both progress and setbacks. Until the slowdown of the last few years, the country had experienced sustained economic growth, due largely to rising prices of gold, copper and other products exported by transnational companies operating in the country. Virtually the entire territory has been given in concession to mining, oil, and logging companies. GDP growth has been achieved at a high environmental cost and with a strong social polarization between, on the one hand, the mining, fishing and logging companies and, on the other, local populations. Peru is one of the world’s top ten countries in terms of environmental conflicts.
Cyprus has traditionally thought of itself as being a multicultural hub, situated, as it is, in the intersection of three major cultures: African, Middle Eastern and European. However, instead of the more nuanced and fluid identity required for the country to be a truly multicultural society, public and private discourses identity have existed in a perpetual feedback loop, reproducing rigid and highly localized narratives about Cypriot identity. In examining its potential to implement the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, this report identifies these narratives to include 1) the polarizing discourse concerning the relationship with Turkey and Greece; 2) the tension between public welfare spending, the power of labor unions and the advocates of free market neoliberalism and limited government; and 3) the conflict venting proxy of Cyprus football that is situated in the intersection of both the Cyprus national identity crisis and the public – market relationship.
In 2015, the Philippines joined the UN community in pledging to put an end to poverty in all of its forms and achieve the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development by 2030. That same year the Government also signed up to reducing vulnerability to risks from disasters (Sendai Framework), to contribute its share in averting climate catastrophe (Paris Agreement), and to ensuring that all these commitments get sufficiently financed (Addis Ababa Action Agenda). Ending poverty and achieving sustainable development are aspirations long overdue in realization. The challenge is how to realize these goals in 15 years after so many years of trying to deliver on virtually the same set of promises, and failing. If the Philippines is to deliver on the more ambitious 17 SDGs in 15 years when it could not fully deliver on the minimalist MDGs during the last 15 years, it needs to recognize and confront serious obstacles, both external and internal, to achieving these goals.
El Salvador was one of 60 countries selected by the United Nations Development System (UNDS) to implement the consultation phase of the Post 2015 Development Agenda. This allowed civil society organizations to generate a space for dialogue that led to the inclusion of priority issues for the country's development in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Subsequently El Salvador became one of fifteen countries selected for accelerated implementation of the SDGs, taking into account that goals and objectives such as safety, equity, health, quality education, growth, resilience and transparency had already been defined in the Five-Year Development Plan, as well as the progress made in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Among measures agreed between the UNDS and the Salvadoran Government is the creation of a National Council for Sustainable Development, composed of representatives from the Government, UNDS, civil society and the private sector. Despite progress towards achieving the MDGs, El Salvador still lags on a number of important goals, particularly with regard to poverty reduction, gender equality and the environmental protection, either for lack of resources or lack of commitment. With the new Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the government has a new opportunity to establish guidelines for all sectors of the country to commit to implementation.
Afghanistan endorsed the Millennium Declaration and accompanying eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) only in March 2004 and added an additional goal to enhance security in order to recognize the critical role of peace and security in achieving the other MDGs. However, having lost over two decades to war, the country has had to modify the global timetable and benchmarks to fit local realities; therefore, 2020 was set for achieving its MDGs instead of 2015. The discrepancy between global and local timetables has created confusion and creates the risk of diverting the focus away from the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The Afghan Government published the final report on its progress in achieving the MDGs in 2015. Because its findings - if challenged by independent watchdogs and shadow reports of the civil society - can be used as the baseline for the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), this report will look at the status of each of the MDGs in Afghanistan, and consider the implications for implementing the 2030 Agenda.
Hungary has played a significant role in drafting the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Before co-chairing, with Kenya, the Open Working Group on the Sustainable Development Goals (2013-2015), in 2013 Hungary organized the Budapest Water Summit, the final document of which called for the development of a stand-alone Sustainable Development Goal on Water and contained almost the same elements as those in SDG 6 on water and sanitation: namely improving sanitation and hygiene services, reducing pollution and increasing the re-use of untreated wastewater (e.g., for irrigation or industrial use), integrated water resources management and the protection of the environment. As a result, Hungary will convene the Budapest Water Summit in November 2016, designed to facilitate the implementation of the goals and targets connected to water as well as to identify technologies that combine traditional water management solutions with efforts to adapt to climate change, ensure energy security, sustainable food production, protect biodiversity, and improve public health. Despite this, Hungary faces a number of challenges with regard to the SDGs, primarily how to address the European migration crisis by taking measures to reduce one of its root causes—poverty-- and how to finance this work with the help of the private sector and financial institutions. Sustainable development cannot be achieved without economic growth, equality, inclusion, justice and without the engagement of women and young people in education and business.
As the 2030 Agenda on Sustainable Development recognizes, achieving sustainable development and inclusive economic growth requires greater attention to equality and justice, both on national and international levels. This requires the adjustment of equilibrium between the private sector and civil society and a guaranteed universal social protection floor. Sustainable development means seeking a balance of human rights, economic development and a secure environment, which will bring about people’s well-being in the short and long terms. This report looks at several of these areas in detail, focusing on social and cultural rights, in particular child development; economic security, particularly land and resource use; labor rights, particularly for women; environmental degradation and the role of transnational corporations. It summarizes the factors leading to a classic ‘development trap’ and identifies some important things that need to be done to overcome this.
Despite enormous geopolitical, political and socio-economic problems Bangladesh has been able to make some extraordinary achievements during the last couple of decades. Since the 1990s, when democracy was reinstated and some major economic reforms were made, the economy of Bangladesh has been experiencing impressive growth, and the country has been able to ensure praiseworthy progress in in education, health and gender equity. But climate change, political instability and turmoil have foiled many achievements. Only political commitments, political will and also good governance can ensure that Bangladesh will be successful in achieving the SDGs by 2030.
Jordan articulated its first National MDG report in 2004, which had an important impact on policy-making as the goals, targets and indicators were adapted and aligned with national plans and development priorities. In 2006 two more documents, the “National Agenda” and "We are all Jordan" articulated a national vision, which was operationalized into a three year National Executive Programme (NEP), integrating MDG indicators related to social welfare, health care, poverty and education and outlining policies, programmes and projects for government institutions. Despite some progress in achieving the MDGs, little progress was made on goals that required structural change, harmony among policies, continuity and sustainability of funding—notably the goals of full employment and environmental sustainability. Indeed, eradicating poverty and hunger, achieving basic education and gender equality, improving child and maternal health, and ensuring environmental sustainability are still the main challenges, particularly following the global economic crisis and ongoing refugee crisis. In 2015, “Jordan 2025. A national vision and strategy was released, through which previous policies, strategies and recommendations were reviewed and a broader process of engagement set. The strategy includes several Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), including the eradication of poverty, the improvement of the educational system, the provision of clear water and sanitation, the guarantee of decent work and economic growth and the development of the sustainable communities and cities, but still a lot needs to be done in order for this approach to be effective and enable Jordan’s development to be inclusive and sustainable.
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